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Unit 4

Current Environment Conservation Activities

Learning Outcomes

  • Learns to prevent and control degradation of land, water, vegetation and air.
  • Learns to facilitate the conservation of natural resources for our future generations.
  • Learns to ensure the protection of biodiversity and to implement sustain-able development.
  • Learns to encourage the concept of sustainable sanitation practices and to create awareness about health and hygiene.
  • Learns to envisage a clean and green state through waste management, organic farming and conservation of water resources with people’s support.
  • Learns to create ecofriendly environment and create awareness on biodiversity conservation.


In which logo does the Indian National Tricolor appear on the bridge of Mahatma Gandhi’s glasses? It is definitely the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. What does it indicate? It rep-resents the coming together of the entire country to realise Mahatma Gandhi’s goal of creating a clean India.

Many schools in Kerala have different clubs like Eco club, Nature Club and Tourism Club; and probably many of you were members of the same. Why do we have such clubs?

We are also familiar with Haritha Keralam Mission. It is now seen that many panchayats have declared the area as Open Defecation Free (ODF).

These and several other clubs and projects have made the country cleaner and safer. It is the need of the hour to sensitize, motivate and educate the entire population of the need about environment conservation. We should also create awareness among society about environment and related issues.

Organizing activities to reduce pollution in our living place and protecting the environment are what we need for making the world a safe place to live and preserving the Earth for the future.

Key words

Cleanliness, Green Kerala, Waste Management, Environment Conservation, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Haritha Keralam Mission, Eco-club, Nature club


3.4.1 Environmental Conservation

The term “conservation” refers to the safe-guarding, maintenance, management, or restoration of natural areas and the ecological communities that live there. A natural resource must be carefully maintained and cared for in order to prevent its extinction. Conservation works in two ways. It is a style of life that works against the reckless commercial and corporate activities and is intended to protect nature by safeguarding essential resources. Conservation safeguards the ecosystem by using natural resources sensibly. For instance, sustainable logging techniques are often used in forest conservation to reduce deforestation.

Environmental conservation is the process of protecting the environment against species extinction and ecosystem collapse, which are mostly brought about by pollution and human activity. Given that we are all reliant on one another for survival, conservation is essential for preserving and assisting both animals and trees. We can breathe and respire easier because of trees’ ability to transform the carbon dioxide created by industry into oxy-gen. Despite the fact that they are very distinct from one another, the terms environmental conservation and preservation are sometimes used synonymously. The proper management of the environment and its resources for both present and future uses is referred to as conservation.

3.4.2 Environment Conservation Activities Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is the most significant cleanliness campaign by the Government of India. Shri Narendra Modi led a cleanliness pledge at India Gate in 2019, which about thirty lakh government employees across the country joined. He also flagged off a walkathon at Rajpath. While leading the mass movement for cleanliness, the Prime Minister exhorted people to fulfil Mahatma Gandhi‘s dream of a clean and hygienic India. He gave the mantra of “Won’t mess up, won’t let”. Shri Narendra Modi also invited nine people to join the cleanliness drive and requested each of them to draw nine more into the initiative. By inviting people to participate in the drive, the Swachhta Abhiyan has turned into a National Movement. The objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan are:

  1. To promote cleanliness and hygiene in a holistic manner.
  2. To reduce the incidence of open defecation.
  3. To bring improvement in the quality of life in rural areas.
  4. To encourage the concept of sustainable sanitation practices.
  5. To create awareness about health and hygiene.


The National Tricolor appears on the bridge of Mahatma Gandhi’s glasses, which are included in the logo. It represents the coming together of the entire country to realise Mahatma Gandhi’s goal of creating a clean India.

People from different sections of the society have come forward and joined this mass movement of cleanliness. From government officials to jawans, bollywood actors to the sportspersons, industrialists to spiritual leaders have lined up for the noble work. Millions of people across the country have been day- after-day joining the cleanliness initiatives of the government departments, NGOs and local community centres to make India clean. Organising frequent cleanliness campaigns for spreading awareness about hygiene through plays and music are also being widely carried out across the nation.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has become a Jan Andolan receiving tremendous support from the people. Citizens too have turned out in large numbers and pledged for a neat and clean In-dia. Taking the broom to sweep the streets, cleaning up the garbage, focussing on sanitation and maintaining a hygienic environment have become a practice after the launch of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. People have started to take part and are helping to spread the message of “Cleanliness is next to Godliness”. Haritha Keralam Mission

Kerala, the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula has been immensely blessed by Nature, with its rich and varied flora and fauna, lush green forests, enthralling waterfalls, mighty mountains, virgin beaches and breathtaking backwaters. The expanse of greenery and abundance of water bodies stand as the hallmark of this land. Depletion of water resources, unscientific methods of solid waste management, air pollution, dumping garbage and chemical effluence in the water bodies, loss of grass cover, abuse of agricultural land and deforestation are some of the threats the State is confronted with. With a vision to bestow an eco-friendly land with its greenery and serenity to the posterity, the Government of Kera-la has envisioned a people-centric endeavour named Mission Haritha Keralam, a mission under the umbrella project named Nava Kerala Mission.

Mission Haritha Kerala aims to promote eco-friendly environment, sustainable development of natural resources, effective solid waste management, rejuvenation of the water reserves, sanitation and social hygiene, promotion of organic cultivation, zero pesticide food products, healthy foods, propagation of herbicides and organic farming, protection of biodiversity and so on. Environmental sustainability is framed with a biocentric approach which places humans within the greater context of their natural environment.


Haritha Keralam Mission is one among the well designed and impactful programmes under the overall development banner of the Government of Kerala. It encompasses three other Missions, Hygienic Waste Management for effective waste disposal, JalaSamirdhi for water conservation, Sujalam Suphalam for agricultural development, implemented through Local Self-Government bodies in a people-centric mode under the Water Resources, Local – Self Government and the Agricultural Department respectively.

Though Kerala receives twice the national average rainfall, it is not capitalised, as the bulk of the rainwater flows into the sea within 48 to 72 hours of rainfall. As such, it has become a pressing necessity to harvest rainwater and replenish the groundwater. Perceiving the magnitude of this issue, the Haritha Keralam Mission undertakes vital steps in order to preserve the water bodies across the state.

The Water Conservation Sub Mission emphasizes to instil a new culture for water conservation in the State by the way of rejuvenating the existing water bodies, cleansing and protecting them with pure and pristine water right from the village ponds to the reservoirs at large, so as to tackle the water woes. The message of the 3Rs approach towards (Reduce, Reserve and Recycle) use of water has to be imprinted in the minds of the citizen with the active participation of voluntary organization, youth associations, students, social and philanthropic organizations discerning groups and people from all walks of life. Local self – governing institutions are the premier bodies for making this venture a success. It is envisaged to revitalize and safeguard the existing wells, ponds, springs, canals and streams across this land in the first phase. In the second phase, rivers, reservoirs, lakes, backwaters and other larger water bodies will be cleaned and protected. The reunification of streams and rivers, the revival of dead rivers with enhanced free flow of water is aimed at this stage thereby, spreading the message of conservation of water sources, judicious use of wells, water recharging and rainwater harvesting.

Activities to ensure hygienic, cleaner and healthier surroundings, better sanitation, waste disposal at the source of generation, promotion of organic farming, prevention of dumping garbage in the water bodies, zero pesticide cultivation, and pure and pollution free water bodies, are all on the move for the cause of greener and cleaner Kerala under the stewardship of Hygienic Waste Management and Agricultural Development Karmasenas. Organic vegetable farming in all households, promoting paddy cultivation in barren lands, vegetable cultivation in rooftops, and planting of saplings are the focal points emphasized and encouraged by the Sujalam Suphalam projects. In addition, promotion of biogas plants, decentralized waste disposal management on Thumboormoozhy model, dispensing plastic and e-waste on Block level basis and effective disposal of hospital waste are some of the waste disposal methods envisioned by the Hygiene Waste Management Sub Mission. Moreover, centralized waste disposal management with modern technologies will be implemented in the urban cities of Trivandrum, Kochi and Kozhikode. Eco-club

Eco is an abbreviation for ecology, the system of relationships between living things, and with their environment. The eco-club is a group which works to contribute to improving environmental conditions. They offer programs and activities to encourage others to reduce pollution, plant trees and more. Eco club activities can help the teacher to meet the objectives of Environmental Education, which are to create awareness and sensitivity among individuals and social groups to the total environment and its allied factors.

Eco Clubs play an important role in creating environmental awareness amongst the future generation.


  1. Motivate the students to keep their surroundings green and clean by undertaking planting of trees.
  2. Promote the ethos of conservation of water by minimizing the use of water.
  3. Motivate students to imbibe habits and life style for minimum waste generation, source separation of waste and disposing the waste to the nearest storage point.
  4. Educate students to create awareness amongst public and sanitary workers, so as to stop the indiscriminate burning of waste which causes respiratory diseases.
  5. Sensitize the students to minimize the use of plastic bags, not to throw them in public places as they choke drains and sewers, cause water logging and provide breeding ground for mosquitoes.
  6. Organize tree plantation programmes, awareness programmes such as Quiz, essay, painting competitions, rallies, nukkad natak etc. regarding various environmental issues and educate children about re-use of waste material and preparation of products out of waste.
  7. Organize Nature Trail in Wild Life Sanctuaries/Parks/Forest areas to know about the Bio- diversity.

Eco club or green club is a voluntary group which promotes the participation of students in learning about, and improving their environment. Students and young people can organize themselves into a green club to learn more about this topic and to take action to better their immediate environment. Nature Club

It is said that nature is the best teacher. It teaches us about the survival of the fittest and nourishes us in all aspects. Nature has endowed us with incredible assets like biodiversity and natural resources. The conservation of these assets has become the need of the times. It is our responsibility to leave this planet in a better shape for the future generation than we found it. Nature Club is a dedicated program to create awareness among the students, faculty and staff about nature and related issues. Nature club is the convergence of nature lovers to promote, monitor and operate the environmental and sustainable activities in the society, starting from college campus with the novel objectives of facilitating the skill development for environmental protection, promoting environmental awareness among all sections of society, spreading environmental and education among students. The various objectives of nature club are:

  • To sensitize, motivate and educate student and staff about environment conservation.
  • To create awareness among society about environment and related issues.
  • Organizing activities to reduce pollution in the district.
  • Encouraging efforts to protect and conserve biodiversity in vicinage.
  • Executing small scale projects within the campus.
  • Contributing to environment awareness and conservation drives in collaboration with regional nature clubs and institutes


The Nature Club conducts various activities such as observing Plantation Day, Vermicomposting of biodegradable waste, maintenance of Butterfly Garden, Herbal Garden, nature trail etc., throughout the year. The nature club gives most of the students an opportunity to break free from their daily routine and experience life in the simplicity and splendour of mother Earth.


  • Environmental Conservation is the practice of preserving the natural world.
  • To prevent it from collapsing as a result of human activities
  • Unsustainable agriculture, deforestation and burning fossil fuels.
  • Voluntary activities aim mainly at global environmental conservation, pollution control, maintenance of the natural environment.
  • Aims to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to encourage hygienic sanitation practice.
  • Hygienic Waste Management for effective waste disposal, oil and water conservation, agricultural development with a special thrust on organic farming are the three focal points of Mission Haritha Keralam.
  • Nature club: A conservation programme composed of a group of people, who can spread conservation awareness in society.
  • Eco-Club: promotes the participation of students in learning about and improving their environment.

Objective type questions

  1. When did Swachh Bharat Abhiyan start?
  2. Who is the inspiration behind Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?
  3. Which ministry started Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?
  4. When did Haritha Kerala Mission start?
  5. When was Eco-club started?
  6. What is the slogan of Haritha Kerala Mission?
  7. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched on the occasion the birth anniversary of a famous Indian leader. Who was it?
  8. What is the full form of ODF?

Answer to Objective type questions

  1. 2 October 2014
  2. Mahatma Gandhi
  3. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India
  4. 10 November 2016
  5. 2001
  6. To safeguard the natural resources
  7. Mahatma Gandhi
  8. Open Defecation Free

Self Assessment Questions

  1. Define environmental conservation.
  2. Write short note on Swachch Bharat Abhiyan.
  3. Mission Haritha Kerala aims to promote eco-friendly environment, sustainable development of natural resources.
  4. Write about some moves for the cause of building greener and cleaner Kerala.
  5. What are the roles of eco clubs in educational institutions?
  6. Write a short note on the objectives of nature club.
  7. Write an essay on various environmental conservation activities.


  1. What kind of activities can be done for environmental conservation?
  2. As a student, what can you do to save the environment?
  3. Write a short note on Eco club.
  4. What are the salient features of Haritha Kerala Mission ?
  5. What are the objectives of swachh bharath mission?

Suggested Reading

  1. Read sample narrative essays to understand the structure and features.


  1. “Swachh Bharat Mission Phase II guidelines released”. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  2. “Swachh Bharat campaign is beyond politics, PM Narendra Modi says”. The Times of India. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  3. Mani, S., & Singh, S. Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management In India: A Policy Agenda. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 150-157, 2016.